The use of PCR and Elisa method to detect and monitor the infection of domestic pigs and wild boars with African Swine Fever Virus


Larisa Anghel (Cireasa), Maria-Virginia Tanasa (Acretei), Corneliu Ovidiu Vrancianu, Natalia Rosoiu


Volume 29, Issue 1;
Pages: 30-33; 2023
ISSN: 2069-0053 (print), Agroprint;
ISSN (online): 2068-9551


African Swine Fever (ASF) is an infectious disease affecting domestic pigs, wild boars, and other related species. It is caused by a double-stranded DNA virus from the Asfarviridae family. Currently, 24 African Swine Fever genotypes have been identified; genotype I is circulating in Eu-rope, South America, and Western Africa. The infection causes high mortality rates in animals, mainly due to hemorrhagic fever. The first signaling of the ASF was in 1921 in Kenya. Subsequent-ly, the virus was reported in 1957 in Portugal and afterward in Spain, but it was eradicated from the Iberian Peninsula in the ‘80s. In Romania, the ASF virus entered probably via Danube Delta, causing a major outbreak in 2018. Currently, the outbreak is under control in Romania due to the implemen-tation of a molecular diagnostic program and a slaughter policy. The objective of our current work was to present the diagnostic results of the ASF virus in pigs and wild boars obtained in 2019 by PCR and ELISA in Constanta County. We used blood samples collected on a clot activator to evalu-ate the presence of post-infection antibodies with ELISA. In addition, we collected blood or differ-ent organs to detect active African Swine Fever virus infection by Real-Time PCR. Using PCR, we confirmed 28 cases of ASF infection in wild boars out of 256 analyzed samples and 15 in domestic pigs from private households out of 64 analyzed samples. However, we did not detect the African Swine Fever virus in 1370 samples analyzed from commercial farms. Performing the ELISA method, we confirmed 18 wild boars out of 199 analyzed samples and positive cases and five domestic pigs from private households out of 879 analyzed samples. We concluded that the Real-Time PCR meth-od allows rapid detection of the African Swine Fever virus a few days after infection. At the same time, ELISA can monitor the post-infection immunological status of pigs / wild boar populations in response to the ASF virus.

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