Estimation of thermo-physical properties of selected Ethiopian indigenous foods and industrialization of Tef Injera, traditional bread

Authors:
Adamu Zegeye Hadis

Volume 26, Issue 4;
Pages: 265-270; 2020
ISSN: 2069-0053 (print) (former ISSN: 1453-1399), Agroprint;
ISSN (online): 2068-9551
Abstract:
Thermo-physical properties were estimated from the composition and temperature of foods to generate data for use in industrialization. Food composition tables were used to estimate thermal conductivity (λ), thermal diffusivity (α), specific heat (Cp) and density (ρ) of eighteen Ethiopian indigenous foods at 20 °C. For this, FYSCONST.xls program was used. Thereafter the generated information was recommended for designing electric baking equipment for mixed grain Tef (Eragrostis tef (Zucc.) Troter) injera, Ethiopian staple bread. The results showed that the estimated value of the most important thermal conductivity, λparallel ,ranged from 0.19 to 0.60 J/sm°C, α=0.96-1.43x10-7 m/s2, Cp=1898.08-4134.69 kJ/kg°C, ρ=1000.56-1280.95 kg/m3. The moisture versus density/thermal conductivity graphs of Tef injera of previous researchers showed the same density (1150 kg/m3) and closer value of thermal conductivity (0.58 J/sm°C) at 62.2 % moisture. As Tef is the favorite grain, the traditional method of Tef injera making was considered as the basis for industrialization.
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