Nutraceutical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of Cyperus Esculentus (Tiger Nut) Against Urinary Tract Infection Pathogens

Imaobong E. Daniel and Etukudo Edigeal D.

Volume 25, Issue 3;
Pages: 127-136; 2019
ISSN: 2069-0053 (print) (former ISSN: 1453-1399), Agroprint;
ISSN (online): 2068-9551
Phytochemical composition, antioxidant vitamins (vitamins A, C and E) and antimicrobial properties of methanol and ethyl acetate extracts of Cyperus esculentus (tiger nut) activity against human urinary tract infection pathogens (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumonia) were evaluated to validate the medicinal potential of this nut. The total polyphenol, flavonoid and alkaloid contents were determined according to Folin-Ciocalteu method, Aluminum colorimetric method and Harborne method respectively. Antioxidant vitamins were determined using standard procedures while the Disc diffusion method was employed in evaluating the antimicrobial activity of the extracts. The results indicated that the bioactive compounds (total phenol, flavonoids and alkaloids) determined quantitatively were present in appreciable concentration in both extracts. However, the concentration of these bioactive compounds determined was significantly higher in the methanol extract than the ethyl acetate extract. This implied that methanol may be a better solvent for extraction. Antioxidant vitamins composition in the different extracts indicated that tiger nut contained appreciable amount of these vitamins. However, the concentrations of these vitamins were considerably higher in the methanol extract, with vitamin E exceeding the daily recommended intake by international standards in both extracts. The susceptibility of these isolates towards the tiger nut extracts was compared with each other and with gentamycin, which was used as a positive control. All plant extracts showed antimicrobial activities against the selected microorganisms at various concentrations and the methanol extract was found to be most effective compared to ethyl acetate extract. Methanol extract exhibited maximum antibacterial activity against E.coli (12.0±1.0 at 100mg/ml) while ethyl acetate extract exhibited maximum antimicrobial activity against Klebsiella pneumonia (11.0 ±1.2 mm at 100mg/ml). The results obtained in this study clearly demonstrated higher and broad spectrum antibacterial activity of tiger nut extracts on all three UTI isolates and this which may be attributed to the presence of phenolic compounds and other phytochemicals. These results further authenticates the medicinal importance of tiger nut as it vast and diverse bioactive compounds of immense pharmaceutical importance.
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