Halogen drying kinetics of some vegan crackers as fortified food products

Authors:
Gabriela Sicoe, Simelda E. Zippenfening, Marius D. Simandi, Raymond N. Szakal, Iulia M. Gălan, Laura Rădulescu, Ioan David, Daniel I. Hădărugă, Ciprian Mocanu, Ionela Puiu, Giulia Mădălina Golea, Nicoleta G. Hădărugă

Volume 24, Issue 4;
Pages: 330-337; 2018
ISSN: 2069-0053 (print) (former ISSN: 1453-1399), Agroprint;
ISSN (online): 2068-9551
Abstract:
In the present study the kinetics of halogen drying process of various vegan crackers used as fortified food products have been performed. Six vegan cracker samples containing various active ingredients such as whole grain wheat, rye, oat, or spelt flour, rice, chickpeas or buckwheat flour, wheat bran, yeast or oat flakes, expanded millet, psyllium or turmeric powder, dried sour cherries, concentrated grape juice, flaxseeds, white sesame, hemp, chia, poppy, pumpkin, black caraway seeds, walnuts, coconut oil, rosemary, basil, lavender or lemon essential oils have been used. The moisture content as well as the drying kinetics were evaluated using the halogen drying technique. A temperature of 120 °C and a “strobe” time range of 30 s were set for the Partner WPS 210S halogen drying equipment. The overall moisture content of the vegan crackers was in the range of 6.32-7.96%, with a highest value for crackers with turmeric and psyllium addition, 7.96 (0.45)%. The drying time vary from 11.17 (2.02) min to 40.5 (14.0) min, while the drying process has very different behavior. This behavior indicates how the “surface” and “strongly retained” water molecules are released from the food matrix. The kinetics of the drying process can quantify this aspect through the drying rates on specific time ranges. Three time ranges of 0-30 s, ½ - 1 ½ min and 1 ½ - 20 min (or more) have been selected. The drying rates significantly vary on the first interval, from 0.057 (0.002) %/s for chickpeas, buckwheat and rice flour based crackers to 0.088 (0.005) %/s for the pumpkin and black caraway seeds based crackers, while this rate on the second and third time ranges had variations of 0.0075-0.0099 %/s and 0.0008-0.0017 %/s, respectively. A qualitative correlation between the types of water molecules from the food matrix with the drying kinetic parameters have been established for such fortified food products.
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