Proximate and phytochemical constituents of four medicinal plants and their cytogenotoxic effects using Allium cepa assay

Musibau. A. Azeez, Taofeek A. Yekeen, Adewumi. O. Adedeji, Olugbenga S. Bello

Volume 22, Issue 3;
Pages: 132-141; 2016
ISSN: 2069-0053 (print) (former ISSN: 1453-1399), Agroprint;
ISSN (online): 2068-9551
Many people in Nigeria rural areas use plants for the treatment of ailmentswithout adequate information on associatedconsequences. The proximate and phytochemical constituents of the leaves of Cymbopogon citratus, Tridax procumbens, Mitracarpus scaber and Polyalthia longifolia(medicinal plants) were evaluated. The cytogenotoxic effects of 1.0, 2.5, 5.0, 10.0, 20.0 and 40.0% of their aqueous leaf extracts were also tested using Allium cepa assay. Proximate constituents and phytochemicals were detected in varying proportion in plant leaves. The leaf extracts showed significant inhibition of cell division with the mitotic index (10, 20 and 40% of C. citratus, only 10% in M. scaber and P. longifolia) lower than half of the control. Complete cell arrest was observed at 20 and 40% of P. longifolia. . The observed order of cytotoxicity was P. longifolia > C. citratus > T. procumbens > M. scaber. The plants are potential candidates for anticancer drugs, especially P. longifolia which exhibit complete cell arrest.
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