Antibacterial and phytochemical analysis of Gmelina arborea fruits sap

Akharaiyi F. C, Obisesan A. O., Olajuyigbe A. B

Volume 22, Issue 3;
Pages: 176-182; 2016
ISSN: 2069-0053 (print) (former ISSN: 1453-1399), Agroprint;
ISSN (online): 2068-9551
In clinical utilization of anti-infective agents, resistance development by bacteria is increasingly compromising treatment outcome and novel antibacterial compounds are desirable. This study was carried out to investigate the antibacterial properties and phytochemical constituents of Gmelina arborea fruits sap against some clinically important pathogens. The ripe, mature green and immature fruits sap of G. arborea were each investigated against Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Shigella dysentariae, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Streptococcus pneumoniae and relevant typed cultures of Shigella dysenteriae ATCC 69559, Salmonella typhi ATCC 13311, Escherichia coli ATCC 35218, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 and Streptococcus pneumoniae ATCC 49619. The ripe fruits sap inhibited all the test bacteria species but most inhibited S. aureus and S. aureus ATCC 25923 with zone of 28 mm and least inhibited S. dysenteriae with a zone of 22 mm. Also the mature green fruits sap inhibited all test bacteria species with highest zone of 26 mm each on P. aeruginosa ATCC 27853 and E. coli ATCC 32218 and least inhibition of 15 mm on P. aeruginosa. The immature green fruits sap could not inhibit P. aeruginosa but created highest inhibition of 25 mm on Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 and least inhibited Shigella dysentariae with a zone of 15 mm. The antimicrobial activity of standard antibiotic Ampicillin was studied in comparison with the fruits’ saps inhibition. The MIC of ripe fruits sap ranged from 12.5 – 50 mg/ml and MBC from 25 – 150 mg/ml. The mature fruits sap MIC ranged from 25 – 50 mg/ml and MBC from 50 - 150 mg/ml while from the immature fruits sap MIC was from the ranged of 50 – 200 and MBC from 150 – 250 mg/ml. Valuable phytochemical constituents known for bacteria inhibition were identified from the fruits sap. Steroids, glycosides and saponin were present in all fruits sap.
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