Electronic Nose and sensorial characterization - discrimination for seven apple types stored, 7 months, in refrigeration and controlled atmosphere conditions

Authors:
Mirela Calu, Denisa Duta, Elena Pruteanu, Maricica Stoica

Volume 16, Issue 3;
Pages: 376-381;
ISSN: 2069-0053 (print) (former: ISSN:1453-1399), Agroprint;
ISSN (online):2068 – 9551
Abstract:
The apple storage by refrigeration and controlled atmosphere is a technique for quality fruit preservation involving careful control of temperature, oxygen, carbon dioxide and humidity. During storage in controlled atmosphere storing rooms for a long period fruits lose their freshness and some of their characteristics depreciate but market differences appears in refrigeration conditions. In this article we characterized seven types of apples stored in these conditions through instrumental and sensory methods concerning their sensorial attributes, respective their smell. The objective evaluation of the quality of fruits is a difficult task, mainly due to the fact that every single person is not necessarily influenced by the same attributes and that the quality scale may vary strongly from one person to another. The perception of volatile compounds by the human nose is of great importance in evaluating quality of foods; therefore, similar principle as the human nose, the electronic nose, was used.

The resulting E-nose intensities were analyzed by PCA, DFA and SQC. All the samples were analyzed using the E-nose FOX 4000 with 18 metal oxide coated or uncoated sensors. The resulting E-nose intensities were analyzed by Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Discriminant Factor Analysis (DFA) and Statistical Quality Control (SQC), which resulted in grouping the used varieties of apples or in grouping the types of samples (peel, homogenate or diluted homogenate from the same apple). The obtained results indicated that E-nose could discriminate successfully among varieties of apples (% of variance >> 90; percentage of recognition ≈ 100 %).
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